Bhagavad gita ch.1, verse 7

The first verse of Bhagwad Gita starts with Dhritarashtra and his me and mine, basically it represents our state of mind in which we are blind to our reality ‘who we really are’ and recognise ourself with this little body – mind – intellect complex that is separate from this world and not knowing our perfect nature we find ourselves imperfect subject to disease, old age and so forth and we want completion by the experience of things. Thats why we find ourselves as experiencer because of our sense organs. And that experience of worldly things gives us joy and suffering. From not knowing ourselves in our perfect nature a sense of incompleteness comes to us and to fulfil that void desire is born I want this and I don’t want that and from this desire action is born we work desperately to get what we want and to avoid what we don’t want. And from action result of action is born (karmafala) and from result of action come life and death. And next few verses dedicated to Duryodhana, if Dhritarashtra represents our ignorance then Duryodhana represents result of it that due to ignorance desire is born and from desire come action, action gives result of action and form that comes our life and death. Basically Duryodhana represents our unfulfilled state due to our recognition with our imperfect form and this incompleteness give rise to thief in us that we want to take something that doesn’t belong to us and make it mine. Wealth is something that is given by lord to all of us but some people hold it too much that’s why it will be insufficient for other’s. The Duryodhana in us want it so badly that it is even ready to go any extent to get it and make his own for the sake of his own personal happiness. That’s why he always remain anxious. That incompleteness keeps us unhappy and creates a thief in us. That what Duryodhana feel all his life, incomplete, unhappy, anxious, fearful and insecure. That’s why to fill that void he wants all that kingdom for himself.

In privious verses Duryodhana shows his feeling of fear and insecurity he is looking at enemy strength and showing his lack of trust on Drona. Then he realizes that he has gone overboard, when somebody is in that state he wants to cover both basis on side he feels very insecure and other side he feels very powerful that I can do it I have all the shwerdness, smartness and strength to do it. So first we look at his insecurity, and weakness that other side is powerful and now he is looking at no no I can do it. Verse seven onwards he look at his strength.

In this verse he is addressing to Drona, he is saying (dvijottama). Dvij (Brahman) brahamans are consider twice born first physical birth of this body and second birth in this knowledge of who you are. His first birth is of a limited being and second birth is of a wise person therefore they are called dvij. Duryodhana is not only calling him dvij but he is calling him dvijottama means best among Brahmins. This would be the best complement under normal circumstances but under these circumstances it is not because society know at that time Brahmins are soft hearted they are not war mongerers they are not fighting type. Dvij is not a positive complement when you are in war. Because soft heartedness is not a good quality in war. Actually it is Duryodhana fear that Drona may go soft towards his sisyas in battle. Therefore, now he is describing who are the great people on his side.

Advertisements

Bhagavad gita ch.1, verse 4 – 6

gita-big-001

Duryodhana knows that Drona can’t be completely trusted, Arjuna is his favorite student. He already show partialty towards arjuna, by demanding Eklavya thumb to save Arjuna greatness. That why Duryodhana wants to make sure that he paying attention towards the warriors he is facing. Who are the warriors he is facing? He is facing great warriors like Bhim and Arjuna his own disciples. Yuyudhana, Virata, Drupada. Yuyudhana is Krishna charioteer. In their last year pandavas hide in Virata palace. Drupad is draupadi father. This is Mahabharata like world war of that time, Every king has to take part in it. Some Kings take side of pandavas because they think it is right thing to do plus their relationship with pandavas and Krishna. Others has taken side of the Kauravas because of there obligations, relation and relationship. As per Niti of that time if you are oblized towards someone no matter how wrong he is you have to take his side. Bhishma grandfather of all of them knows everything but he has to take Kauravas side because of his vow, no matter what happens I will protect throne of Hastinapur and throne of Hastinapur is with Duryodhana, in the same way almost everybody having simpathy towards pandavs they know great injustice has been done against them. But they have to take Kauravas side because of their obligations. Dhrstaketu, Chekitanah, Kasirajha, Purujit and Kuntibhojha. All of them were Maharathis (Maharathi is the one who control army of eleven thausand Archer’s, All of them were like caption of there batallions). Purujit and Kuntibhojha are brothers, Kuntibhojha is the one who adopted Kunti. Kasirajha is the king of Kashi. They are the great people. Duryodhana is looking at them and saying don’t underestimate the quality of people on other side though they are small in numbers. He is saying this because he is seeing this and feeling insecure. He is trying to gaze the situation he is in he thinks that he had this great army but he look on other side what they have they are the maharathis some of them having record of never loosing any battle so pay attention to them, he is transferring his insecurity to drona. And then yudhamanu’s, vikranta are the kings and leaders of other tribes etc. And also don’t forget subhadra son Abhimanyou.

Bhagavad gita ch.1, verse 3

gita-big-003

In the first two verses Dhritarashtra and Sanjaya were talking but in this verse, Duryodhana is addressing his teacher Drona, That ” teacher, behold this mighty army of Pandavas, that your intelligent student Dhrishtadyumna, son of Dhrupad, has organized in military formation”. Duryodhana says this to Drona because he is not sure about Drona loyalty, he knows very well that, Ajuna is Drona favorite student and his heart is always with him. That’s why he wants to disturb Drona equanimity by reminding him that leader of Pandavas army is the son of dhrupad. Drona and dhrupad had a chequered past, They were best friends, but due to some misunderstanding, they turn into sworn enemies. By reminding him that, Duryodhana wants to disturb him emotionally and trying to made him think that his students place him willingly just to spite him.

Here we begin to explore one of the themes of Bhagavad Gita that is mental equanimity, we are at our best when a center of the brain that related to emotions is calm, not agitated. When our mind is calm it allows out intellect to make rational decisions based on available options, most logical way out of the situation. Duryodhana wants to disturb Drona mental equanimity by emotional agitating him. So that he is unable to make rational decisions.

Bhagavad Gita ch.1, verse 2

Sanjaya reply to question asked by Dhritarashtra:

gita-big-002

After looking at Pandavas army king Duryodhana went to his Acharya (teacher) Drona and said this. Vyasa was a great poet and thinker, every word that he put has a meaning. He is using word king instead of a prince, though Duryodhana was not a king yet, to show the attitude of Duryodhana that he considers himself as a person in power or king. Since his childhood, Duryodhana always considers himself as the rightful heir to the throne because the father was blind and totally dependent on him. Pandavas are the only obstacle in his way. That’s why he develops hatred and aversion towards them and that arise because of his attachment towards the throne. The words attachment and hate seems to be opposite of each other but hate and aversion arise due to attachment. He went to his guru because he is fearful after looking at Pandavas army and he knows mastery of Drona and his strength. When we are fearful we will go to someone where we feel more secure like children hide behind their parents when they feel insecure. But not with humility of student but with the vanity of a king, like he wants to say that look you are my employee and make sure you must use all your strength to win this war. People feel most powerful when they are insecure, that’s why in most of the mental diseases person become violent because they lose grasping of reality and start feeling insecure about themselves. That’s why at that moment of war Duryodhana feel like a king or person in power.

Bhagavad Gita Ch.1, verse 1

gita-big-001

In the battlefield of Kurukshetra which is also Dharamakshetra, the battlefield Kurukshetra is named after king kuru who is the ancestor of both Kauravas and Pandavas, he was a very great and pious king and did everything according to dharma and it is also expected from his descendants to follow the same. King Dhritarashtra think that he followed his ancestor’s footsteps and did everything according to dharma that’s why he called Kurukshetra a dharmakshetra.These two people gather to fight with each other what does my sons and Pandu sons did. Here we see the first thing that he said is my sons and treat Pandu son as a third party. That’s we all do we are the center of our own universes each and every thought that generated in our mind is associated with our ego or false self, not with our true self that is the soul. Even though it is not completely associated with us but it is still somewhere contain that I. It shows that how strongly we are connected with our ego.

The person who is most anxious to know about war is Dhritarashtra Because somewhere in his heart he knows whatever he is doing is not accordance with his dharma of a king. Whenever we are working in the line of our dharma we are not worried about fruits of action. But when do something only because it seems right from other people perspective we are anxious about results of our actions.

USEFULNESS OF BHAGWAD GITA IN MODERN WORLD

The modern man in this present decade of the 21st century is greatly in
need of an effective guide to light. He is groping. He sees only problems everywhere and no
solutions are to be found anywhere. He does not know which way to turn, what course to adopt and
how to move towards a better state of things. Therefore, his life is filled with restlessness,
unhappiness and complication. The Bhagavad Gita contains words of wisdom and practical
teachings that contain the answers to the above-mentioned condition of the present-day individual.

Gita is a dialogue between a comman man arjuna and lord of yoga Sri Krishna. In vedic culture knowledge is delivered as a dialogue between guru and disciple. And guru is already a enlightened person and disciple is also well veresed in that knowledge. Like in great Upanishads. But that discussion takes place at very high level beyond understanding and need of comman man. But what is different in bhagwad Gita is that here conversation is taking place between Arjuna a comman man though he is a prince he is still a comman man because he having same desires and ambitious as we have and he have same problems of birth and death, of pain, suffering, fear, bondage, love and hate as we have. In gita both Arjuna and lord are at very different level and lord is not only giving him solution to his present problem in life but he is giving him transcendental solution to all the problems in life. He is lifting him from the state of utter dejection, sorrow and total breakdown and hopelessness to a
state of perfect understanding, clarity, renewed strength and triumph. The Gita is the cream of the Vedas. It is the essence of the soul-elevating Upanishads. It is a
universal scripture applicable to people of all temperaments and for all times. It is a wonderful book
with sublime thoughts and practical instructions on Yoga, devotion, Vedanta and action. It is a
marvellous book, profound in thought and sublime in heights of vision. It brings peace and solace to
souls that are afflicted by the three fires of mortal existence, namely, afflictions caused by one’s
own body, those caused by beings around one, and those caused by the gods. The Bhagavad Gita formulates the theories of the three paths without creating any conflict
among them. It harmonises most wonderfully the philosophy of action, devotion and knowledge.
All three must be harmoniously blended if you wish to attain perfection. You should have the head
of Sri Shankara, the heart of Lord Buddha and the hand of King Janaka. The three horses of this
body-chariot—action, emotion and intellect—should work in perfect harmony. Only then will it
move smoothly and reach the destination safely and quickly. Only then can you rejoice in the Self,
sing the song of Soham, be in tune with the Infinite, hear the soundless voice of the Soul and enjoy
the sweet music of the eternal Self.

PREFACE

Bhagavad Gita is a song, but not an ordinary song. It is a song of spiritual wisdom — a dialogue between God and Man (the teacher and the taught), giving lasting joy to all. It contains the essence of Vedic and Upanishadic wisdom and considered as both Upanishad and yoga-sastra. Upanishads contains knowledge about absolute truth and our oneness with it. This is known as Brahma-vidya and this Brahma-vidya is the main theme of Bhagavad Gita, that’s why each of its chapters is called Upanishad. And Gita is yoga sastra because like them it also gives practical guidance on how to attain the truth and live fulfilled lives. It is the nectar of Mahabharata and found at the center of the 18 cantos (parvans). It forms chapters 25 to 42 in the sixth canto called Bhisma – parvan. In its full form, Bhagavad Gita had 700 verses, split into 18 chapters, of which 574 are spoken by Krishna, 84 by Arjuna, 41 by Sanjaya and 1 by Dhritarashtra. It is a conversation though it seems like discourse, which takes place over 90 minutes while fully armed soldiers on either side wait impatiently for battle.

Dhritarashtra and Pandu were brothers. Dhritarashtra married Gandhari, and Pandu was
married to Kunti and Madri. King Pandu was cursed for a sin while hunting, due to which he was
not permitted to unite with his wife. Kunti got a boon through her sincere service of a wise sage in
her younger age, and she begot three children, namely, Yudhisthira, Bhima and Arjuna from Yama,
Vayu and Indra respectively. Madri had twins, Nakula and Sahadeva, through the celestial
physicians called Asvini-Devatas. Dhritarashtra had a hundred and one children by his wife
Gandhari. Pandu passed away and his sons, the Pandavas, were all brought up by Dhritarashtra
along with his sons known as Kauravas. The Pandavas and Kauravas grew up together, but due to
the braveness and intelligence of the former, the Kauravas were unable to tolerate them. Hence the
Pandavas decided to live separately, sharing half of their kingdom.
The Pandavas’ pomp, wealth and glory displayed during the Rajasuya Yajna aroused deep
jealousy and greed in the mind of Duryodhana, the chief of the Kauravas, who, with the cunning
advice of his uncle, Sakuni, invited Yudhisthira to a game of dice and fraudulently defeated him,
whereby all his wealth and possessions, including Draupadi, were lost. Finally it was settled that the
Pandavas, including Draupadi, should repair to the forest for twelve years in exile, after which they
had to live incognito for another year, untraced by the Kauravas. During this period the kingdom
was to be ruled by the wicked Duryodhana.
Having successfully completed these thirteen years of exile, facing many obstacles and
dangers instigated by the Kauravas, the Pandavas, as per the terms of the agreement, approached the
Kauravas for their share of the kingdom. Duryodhana, however, flatly refused to part with as much
land as could be covered by the point of a needle. According to the advice of Mother Kunti and with
the inspiration of Lord Krishna, the Pandavas decided upon war and tried to establish their rightful
claim on the kingdom by overcoming the Kauravas.
Duryodhana and Arjuna, from the side of the Kauravas and Pandavas respectively, were
sent to Dwaraka to seek the help of the Yadava hero, Lord Krishna, in the battle. They both found
Krishna resting on a couch in His palace. Duryodhana went in and occupied a seat at the head of the
couch while Arjuna stood near the feet of the Lord. The moment Sri Krishna opened His eyes, He
naturally saw Arjuna first, and then Duryodhana sitting on a chair. After enquiry of their welfare
and the purpose of their visit, Sri Krishna, according to the prevailing custom, gave the first choice
to Arjuna, because of his age, and also because of His sight of Arjuna first. Krishna asked Arjuna to
fulfil his desire by selecting Him unarmed or His powerful army called Narayani Sena. Arjuna, who
was a devotee of Sri Krishna, expressed his desire to have the Lord with him, neglecting the
powerful Narayani Sena, even though Krishna warned that He would remain a witness, bound by
the vow of not participating in battle and not taking up arms. Duryodhana, with great delight,
thinking that Arjuna was foolish, expressed his wish for the powerful army to help his side in the
battle.
When Krishna asked Arjuna why he chose Him when He was not for taking up arms, Arjuna
said, “O Lord! You have the power to destroy all the forces by a mere sight. Why then should I
prefer that worthless army? I have for a long time been cherishing a desire in my heart that you should act as my charioteer. Kindly fullfil my desire in this war.”

The Lord, who is ever the most devoted lover of His devotees, accepted his request with
pleasure; and thus Krishna became the charioteer of Arjuna in the battle of the Mahabharata.
After the return of Duryodhana and Arjuna from Dwaraka, Lord Krishna Himself went once
to Hastinapura as the emissary of the Pandavas and tried to prevent the war. But then, under the
guidance of Sakuni, the egoistic Duryodhana refused to agree to the peace mission and tried to
imprison Lord Krishna, at which Krishna showed His Supreme Form (Viswarupa). Even the blind
Dhritarashtra saw it by the Lord’s Grace. King Dhritarashtra, due to his attachment to his sons,
failed to control them, and the Kaurava chief, Duryodhana, with vain hope, decided to meet the
powerful Pandavas in war.
When both sides were prepared to commence the battle, the sage Veda Vyasa approached
blind Dhritarashtra and said, “If you wish to see this terrible carnage with your own eyes I can give
you the gift of vision.” The Kaurava king replied, “O Chief of the Brahmarishis! I have no desire to
see with my own eyes this slaughter of my family, but I should like to hear all the details of the
battle.”
Then the sage conferred the gift of divine vision on Sanjaya, the trusty counsellor of the
king, and told the king, “Sanjaya will describe to you all the incidents of the war. Whatever happens
in the course of the war, he will directly see, hear or otherwise come to know. Whether an incident
takes place before his eyes or behind his back, during the day or during the night, privately or in
public, and whether it is reduced to actual action or appears only in thought, it will not remain
hidden from his view. He will come to know everything, exactly as it happens. No weapon will
touch his body nor will he feel tired.”
After the ten days of continued war between the Pandavas and the Kauravas, when the great
warrior Bhishma was thrown down from his chariot by Arjuna, Sanjaya announces the news to
Dhritarashtra. In agony the king asks Sanjaya to narrate the full details of the previous ten days war,
from the very beginning, in all detail as it happened. Here commences the Bhagavad Gita.